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Part-2. Origin of Dhakshina-Indians........ (by Bukka Malla)

  Part-2. Origin of Dhakshina-Indians........ (by Bukka Malla)   
                  In the earlier article ‘Evidence’  we have seen that Badugas (British people mispronounced as Badagas) existed in Neelagiri,    around 3000 years back.    It was based on the evidences of Cairns and Barrows {Those cairns and barrows belong to 7th centuary BC (ref- Balakrihnan Nair)},  and the artifactes found  in them & based on the unique sounds and words (some words contain the Unique sounds- f*u, qwa  & gwa ) in Badugu language  and on the interaction with other tribes  (like Kothas, Thodhavas/Thodas, Kurumbas and Mandadan chetties-in Gudalur area) and the information they revealed regarding the Moriyara mane’ (300 BC).
                     But their population could not be much and might be around some hundreds (may be more than that of Thodhavs or Kothas). And as it is revealed in the Gazateer and by the Baduga elders of yesteryears,   at least three disasters or famines occured and many villages were torched  using  Kurumba tribe(they apart from attending the festivals of Badugas, also practiced sorcery), in interrivalry  among Badugas in Thoodhoor area(it is said that thousands of years ago there were 19 Baduga villages (here Baduga is a general term and we should understand that there have been different sects among Baduga soceity).
                   Their origin, like some ancestral population of Kannadigas, Telugu people and Tamilians might have been from Sindh Valley, which spreads across present Afganishtha, western Punjab and Baluchistan (in Pak.). That population of Badugas might be in thousands before 1300 AD. 
                      In 1000s AD, there existed a Badugu raja(king), called  1*KaaLa (1116 AD to 1162 AD) who ruled from Kookalu kOte’ (fort) in the east near Kothakeri (kotagiri); another one called 2*Neela raja ruled from BeLLikallu fort (near Hullhaththi    in the west of Neelagiri; and another one (name not known) ruled from Male’kOte’ fort which is still west of BeLLikallu. In   my school days i witnessed two of them. Malekote’ s ruined fort was there with double walls (the place Malekote’ is still there near Kadasole’) in those days and now the people removed the stones and cultivating there (it was not noticed by archeologists, it seems. It is told that when the people digged there for cultivation they got golden hand stick, golden plates and other utensils and king’s seal from beneath). The old tree, the small temple of the king’s family and the vast mote are still there. These were around 1000 years back.     
          3*But in Tippu's period, one Mudhdhoorayya ruled from MalekOte' fort and another Ummathoorayya ruled from a fort near Konavakore' in Kothakeri.They were the last known rulers in Neelagiri. They talked Badugu but it is not known whether they are Baduga kings or Odeya kings (view in the footnote for details); the Minister of Mudhdhoorayya was Baduga ancestral grandfather of K.P. Raju of Kadasole' village near Malekote'. 
                   The earlier and prehistoric Baduga settlers were not from any kingdom or king’s family before coming to Neelagiri; as in other prehistoric communities  leaders /Naiks or kings emerged., are KaaLa raja, Neela raja etc,
                    But the Badugas (both common cultivating people, warriors, priests, labourers etc,) and Kankka, Adhikari, Odeya who came after KaaLa’s period were, it is said, from Baduga kingdoms  of various places on various periods after the fight with the attacking muslim occupiers/kings  like  Delhi sultan etc.,  Because of the mixed population of different labours, different sects of Badugas might have come into being. (It is not known whether any one from any kings’ family came).  They came along with other population, most probably between, around1200 AD and 1500 AD. It is also said that some more might have come at the fall of Vijayanagara empire(at that time some small kingdoms were there at Tharakanambi, Siriyooru,etc, at the northern foot hills of Neelagiri, where still Badugas have 7 temples at different locations; the Badugas of Nandhhatty, in Gudalur,  say their temple is around 600 years old. This will  be discussed later)  
      One example of the exodus of Other communities  is given below, TO UNDERSTAND THE TERROR which drove many communities including Kannadiga, Tamilian, Badugas,Sourashtrians etc,:-                     
            In the 1310 AD-plaque recovered at Nandhana hosur (chithradurga dist of Karnataka)  gives the following accounts:- when the Delhi sultan came to knew about the beauty of the daughter of Hoondi heththa Nayakka (nayakka means leader), he through his souldiers captured her and brought to Delhi. And again when he heard about Hoondiheththa nayaka’s enormous wealth and cattles (in lacks) , ordered his men to capture those wealth.  On hearing this(the message was sent secretly by his daughter Byrodevi, from Delhi) Hoondiheththa nayaka consulted also with the leaders of  Kunchatigas(a sect of wokkaligas); then he along with 1.his brother (BuLLi nayaka) and 2.other leaders like SingaNa nayaka, Ketha nayaka and 3.‘adhikaari’-Thippenayaka, Devanayaka, Thimmanayaka, 4.KattaLe’ nayaka of PuNajeyooru ,and 5. KaNakkas  who were accompanied with 4000 Brhamans, 6. Chikkarasa , 7.Muppina Byra nayaka with 5000 persons, 8. along with Yasalur  Thippenayaka, 6000 persons, 9. Saalumoole’ Chetti with 7000 persons, 10.PattaNa swamies (merchants were called swamy), 11.5000 persons of gold smiths, carpenters & weavers , 12. 2000 persons of   washermen, barbers, 13.and other families, (it is said all of them  belong to 18 casts/communities)....                  left the place Sidigere; along with these populations the following also accompanied:- 9  Open Planquins,  1700 closed Planquins, 7200 horses, 12 LAKHS of cattle, 7700 bullock carts. They belonged to 40 villages and also took with them the statues of Gods of Byradheva and Mahadheva on vehicles; he appointed Mudhdha Jeeya and Raama Jeeya to look after the POOJAs/prayers (of these Gods) and to take care of 5 Lakhs  of cattle exclusively for pooja related things (mainly milk).                
          On hearing this, the Sultan sent 770 khans(chiftains) under the leadership of Malok khan to attack them. Hoonda heththa nayaka heard this when nearing Heththore’ (Thungabadhra river); they immediately crossed the mighty river (it is to be noted here that there was no bridge at that period and only in Krishnadevarayas period a massive stone bridge was constructed-which is present still now , when i visited Hampi 30 years back); immediately after crossing the river, Hoondi nayaka formed a temporary fort using 7700 vehicles/big carts , played the war drum and fought back and KILLED  ALL the  770 khans  and their forces ; as a mark of this win he blew the horn called, ‘’Dharmagale’’. Then he came to Hampi and again played the war drum, washed the sword in Heththore’ river took bath in the mighty river along with all his people. From there he reached Guntanur. K.P.Raju, the historian says that what the plaque mentioned as Delhi sultan (1310) is none but Alahudeen gilgi  and his military captain was Maalik kaffur.
                     This is just one example of exodus. I have not used the word  4* Migration here(as it has been connected with all human being from 2 Lacks of years back- vide the foot note). As the above said example       many communities migrated southwards on various occasions. K.P.Raju refers  ‘Archeological survey of Mysore’, ‘Gazateer of Madurai’, ‘Gazateer of Salem’, ‘Mysore tribes and casts’(by L.K.Ananthakrishna Iyyer), , for more   plaques or stone inscriptions  to understand the exodus of different language groups including Tamils. 
                Madurai gazetteer says that, due to the attack by Mohmadans the  Thottiya naikars of Madurai left north-Deccan and came to present Madurai district. 
      According to the Jameendar family of Bodinaikanoor, their Sakku naika ancestors, to escape the onslaught of the mohamadens, left Kuthi in Ananthapur in early 14th centuary and came to Periyakulam taluk.
        The Jameendhar families in  Kannivaadi (Thottiam community of Dindukal) say that the muslims attempted to capture their ladies; to escape from them they along with other community leaders and people, left swiftly from north-Deccan area, moved southwards.When they reached a river they prayed and two branches of two ''Punga''(tamil name) trees on either side joined till all of them crossed the river. 
  The establisher of Maharajakadai in Krishnagiri taluk, Kambi naidu's ancestors came from the banks of Krishna river.
   In 1025 AD, when Gajini mohamed unleashed terror, destroyed villages, ladies & children and looted wealth &temples the Sourashtrians left Somnath (Gujarath) and arrived at Devagiri; when Gajini attacked there also, they again migrated to the great empire of Vijayanagara. Later they settled in Madurai. It is said that their population is 1/3 of the population of Madurai people.
   These are just a tip of the iceberg; so many communities have run towards south due to the attrocities of the invading muslims, on various periods. Like this the later Badugas (except the prehistoric settlers who were in Nigiris before KaLa's period-vide Evidence-part-1) also came on various occasions; some came after  the fall of the sons of Harihara and Bukkha,fighting back with the invading muslims.
               Now let us recall the recorded facts of the plaque at Nandhana Hosuru. The name means 'new village of Nandha' (hosuru-hosa ooru-new village;  Nandhana- of Nandha).The period was around 1300 AD. It is interesting to note that the people of Nandhhatty (hatty-village; so it means,'village of Nandha') at Gudalur(Neelagiri; 1000' msl) say that their old 'Madheshwara temple' 
5*(the 'Linga' there is a rare one) is 600 year old, which is more or less of the period of that plaque at Nandhana Hosuru. Note the similarity of the names. In Badugaru the name Nandha or Nandhu is also used. So it gives a doubt whether there was any connection.It is normal for ancient people to name their new place with the name of old previous place. Ofcourse ancient Badugas were already there at the top of Neelagiri (more than 2000'msl) and their presence might have given feeling of security to the new comers. But in the above said plaque, Badugas was not mentioned, while it mentions the names 'KaNakka' with Brhamins, 'Adhikaari', Kunchattiga(wokkaliga/okkaliga), Saalumoole Chetti, and other helper communities. In these, KaNakkas and Adhikari are considered sects of Badugaru Now and they and Chetties talk Badugu language. And (mandadan)Chetties are there in Gudalur area and their main temple is 'Baettekaara gudi' at Nembalkote at Gudalur. It is visited by both Chetties and Badugaru together and festivals were celebrated (but for a brief period, it was taken over by the Nilambur Kings). (Wayanadan Chetties are at Pulpalli and i haven't completed research on them). The wokkaligas are in Karamadai area near Mettupalayam and talk only Kannada,now mixed with tamil. Recently Tamiz has mixed and affected the Badugu language of those in the hill top, while Malayalam has mixed with Badugu (of the Badagas & Chetties of Nelli seeme'-ie, vast area covering Gudalur and Nelliyalam fort area near Upphatti).
           Also note the names of the persons................
....................................(to be continued)


        (the brief histories of those sons of Harihara and Bukkha and the Baduga kingdoms upto Tharakanambi and Seegoor etc, will be presented later)  
 ..........(will be posted sooner.....)

     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------          1* It is in the stone inscription near Chamrajnagar which says that KaaLa ruled from Kookal; Hoysala king’s cheiftain attacked Kaala for two times at the interval of 10 years but got defeated by Kaala. Only in the third attempt when he fought with Kaala’s son, could manage to win over.                                                                       2*  BeLLikallu kote’ is not there now, but it is said that a King’s seal was found there. May be, Neelagiri was called so in remembrance of Neela raja. In Mahabhartha there is a mention of Neela raja of Mysore who was defeated by Sagadheva. But it is not known whether that Neela raja is related to that of BeLLikallu.        
    3 Mudhdhoorayya's minister was Baduga from Kadasole' village. In the east of MalekOte' a village called Banjimora  and Thattaneri are there. In Banjimora both Baedas(the warriors of the king) and Kumbaras  (lingayats, may be the priests) are still there. All of them talk Badugu only.  It is said that once,  Mudhdhoorayya went up the hill forest of Okkalu bettu(bettu- mountain) south of MalekOte', for hunting along with the minister(of Kadasole' hatti/village) and some warriors (of Banjimora); then he encountered 'bad omens' and the minister (Kadasole' ayya) stopped the king and advised not to proceed and to return immediately. But the king refused and made fun of his belief and proceeded. When he reached the top of the mountain where there is grass sholas, the minister looked down and found that muslim warriors surounded the fort. They understood that it was Tippu's warriors and the king felt sorry for his folly and asked the pardon of the minister and proceeded alone on his horse towards wayanad. It is not known where he heeded. It is said that at the fort,  the Quen and her daughter were there and as they wanted to avoid being  captured by the muslim warriors,   jumped into the waters in the surrounding mote and died.       
           It is also said that, earlier to this attack, Udhdhoorayya of Kothakeri area(east of MalekOte' in Nellagiri), on knowing the advance of Tippus forces, sent word to his younger brother Mudhdhoorayya to come for help;but the Malekote' king did not heed the request. So,  Udhoorayya told the following words:-          "Udhdhoorayyaga hoo hoththu; Mudhdhoorayyaga boo hoththu"- its direct toto meaning is '' for Udhdhoorayya it is (at) rising sun; for Mudhdhoorayya it is (at) falling sun'' (this means that what he suffered now will certainly befall on the other sooner).           
   4* 'Migrations' :-
          The history of prehistoric India is one of epic migrations. From genome data, we know there were waves of migration from 70000 BC to 40000 BC. Consequently, there are four linguistic groups in India: Austro-Asiatic (the oldest), Tibeto-Burman, Dravidian and Indo-Aryan (the most recent).
According to Mayank Vahia, a scientist at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, who has studied the genetic history of the subcontinent, there was no significant migration into India between 40000 BC and 2000 BC, when Sanskrit-speaking Indo-Europeans first made their presence felt. As megalithic societies were preliterate, the racial or ethnic origins of the megalithic people are thus difficult to pin down.
         The first hypothesis of origin is that Homo erectus rose from the Australopithecina in East Africa
  From there it migrated, in part, by 2.0 mya(million years ago), probably as a result of broad desertifying conditions developing then in eastern and northern Africa; it joined the migrations through the "Saharan pump" and dispersed around much of the Old World. The fossil record shows that its development from about 1.8 mya to one mya was widely distributed: in Africa (Lake Turkana[12] and Olduvai Gorge), the Transcaucasus (Dmanisi in Georgia), Indonesia (SangiranCentral Java and TrinilEast Java), and in Vietnam, China (Zhoukoudian and Shaanxi), and India.[13]
 The Neanderthal genome projectpublished papers in 2010 and 2014 stating that Neanderthals contributed to the DNA of modern humans, including most humans outside sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a few populations in sub-Saharan Africa, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.[28][29][30][31]Recent studies also show that some Neanderthals mated with ancestors of modern humans long before the "out of Africa migration" of present-day non-Africans, as early as 100,000 years ago.[32]In 2016, research indicated that there were three distinct episodes of interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals
   A large number of molecular clock genetic studies place the divergence time of the Neanderthal and modern human lineages between 800,000 and 400,000 years ago
              . Since the three non-African genomes show a similar proportion of Neanderthal sequences, the interbreeding must have occurred early in the migration of modern humans out of Africa, perhaps in the Middle East. No evidence for gene flow in the direction from modern humans to Neanderthals was found
             According to a 2014 study by Thomas Higham and colleagues of organic samples from European sites, Neanderthals died out in Europe between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago.[e] New dating in Iberia, where Neanderthal dates as late as 28,000 years had been reported, suggests evidence of Neanderthal survival in the peninsula after 42,000 years ago is almost non-existent.[11]
Possible scenarios for the extinction of the Neanderthals are:
  1. Neanderthals were a separate species from modern humans, and became extinct (because of climate change or interaction with modern humans) and were replaced by modern humans moving into their habitat between 45,000 and 40,000 years ago.[175] Jared Diamond has suggested a scenario of violent conflict and displacement.[176]  (the Neanderthals were accostomed to the extreme cold climate )
  2. 2.   Neanderthals were a contemporary subspecies that bred with modern humans and disappeared through absorption (interbreeding theory).
      3.    Volcanic catastrophe: see Campanian Ignimbrite Eruption
  5*the 'Linga' in the Madheshwara temple at Gudalur(Neelagiri) is 
      a rare one with serpant figure rolling around it at the lower half   portion; it is said to be powerful one and even one can see some   other religious people also giving pooja, at the annual 5 days   festival. Flowers from Nandhhatty is taken to Bokkaapura temple(near Masinagudi [900'msl] and one of the seven temples around that area at the northern foothill of Neelagiri) and then only festival starts at Bokkaapura. 



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